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Table of Contentsโ€‹


  • Client Volt Protocol
  • Date September 2022
  • Lead reviewer Daniel Luca (@cleanunicorn)
  • Reviewers Daniel Luca (@cleanunicorn)
  • Repository: Volt Protocol Core
  • Commit hash 86868c6f77fca67ed6586674437cc9bfc85c1963
  • Final commit hash 1a1ce42f5131059084b8def03a75c334762fad98
  • Technologies
    • Solidity
    • Node.JS

Issues Summaryโ€‹


Executive summaryโ€‹

This report represents the results of the engagement with Volt Protocol to review Volt Protocol Core.

The review was conducted over the course of 1 week from September 12 to September 16, 2022. A total of 5 person-days were spent reviewing the code.

Week 1โ€‹

During the first week, we started to manually review the code and the provided documents. The code is well documented and of good quality, but it's highly modular and it's hard to understand the overall architecture. We started to write a high-level architecture diagram and we started to write a list of the most important contracts.

We identified a few low severity issues, but we didn't find any critical issues. We also identified a few issues that could be improved, but they don't represent a security risk.

On Wednesday, we set up a meeting with the client to discuss the architecture and the issues we found. The dev team needed us to check a new PR that is about to hit the mainnet. This PR is identified by commit hash 1a1ce42f5131059084b8def03a75c334762fad98. The scope was extended to include the file contracts/pcv/utils/ERC20Allocator.sol.

On Thursday, we focused on the newly added file. We had another meeting with the client where we discussed details in the implementation of the new contract.

On Friday, we made sure we didn't have any open or unfinished issues and had another meeting with the client to deliver the report and discuss any open questions.


The initial review focused on the Volt Protocol Core repository, identified by the commit hash 86868c6f77fca67ed6586674437cc9bfc85c1963. Later during the week, another file was added to the scope, identified by the commit hash 1a1ce42f5131059084b8def03a75c334762fad98.

We focused on manually reviewing the codebase, searching for security issues such as, but not limited to, re-entrancy problems, transaction ordering, block timestamp dependency, exception handling, call stack depth limitation, integer overflow/underflow, self-destructible contracts, unsecured balance, use of origin, costly gas patterns, architectural problems, code readability.


  • PriceBoundPSM
  • Core
  • L2Core
  • VoltSystemOracle
  • OraclePassThrough
  • TimelockController - from OpenZeppelin
  • PCVGuardian
  • PCVGuardAdmin
  • CoreRef
  • OracleRef
  • ERC20CompoundPCVDeposit
  • ERC20Allocator - added later in the scope



Setting the backup oracle should impose the same restrictions everywhereโ€‹

Issue status: Acknowledged Medium


The OracleRef contract is deployed with a few arguments:


    /// @notice OracleRef constructor
/// @param _core Fei Core to reference
/// @param _oracle oracle to reference
/// @param _backupOracle backup oracle to reference
/// @param _decimalsNormalizer number of decimals to normalize the oracle feed if necessary
/// @param _doInvert invert the oracle price if this flag is on
address _core,
address _oracle,
address _backupOracle,
int256 _decimalsNormalizer,
bool _doInvert
) CoreRef(_core) {

Before setting the backup oracle, its value is checked to be different from address(0) and different from _oracle:


        if (_backupOracle != address(0) && _backupOracle != _oracle) {

However, when calling the external method setBackupOracle the same checks are not applied:


    /// @notice sets the referenced backup oracle
/// @param newBackupOracle the new backup oracle to reference
function setBackupOracle(address newBackupOracle)


    // Supports zero address if no backup
function _setBackupOracle(address newBackupOracle) internal {
address oldBackupOracle = address(backupOracle);
backupOracle = IOracle(newBackupOracle);
emit BackupOracleUpdate(oldBackupOracle, newBackupOracle);

We can see the comment saying that the address zero can be set if we want to disable the oracle:


    // Supports zero address if no backup

Which disables the backup oracle in readOracle:


        if (!valid && address(backupOracle) != address(0)) {

The second check is not enforced, thus the backup oracle could be equal to the main oracle.


Add a check to ensure that the backup oracle is different from the main oracle in the internal method _setBackupOracle and remove the same check in constructor.

Setting the invert flag in OracleRef might have unexpected consequencesโ€‹

Issue status: Acknowledged Medium


The method setDoInvert sets a storage flag that affects the value read from the oracle.

The value determines if it is inverted according to doInvert

$$ f(x) = \begin{cases} 1/x & \quad \text{when doInvert is }true\ x & \quad \text{otherwise} \end{cases} $$


        // Invert the oracle price if necessary
if (doInvert) {
_peg = invert(_peg);

The value then proceeds to be scaled before being returned:


        // Scale the oracle price by token decimals delta if necessary
uint256 scalingFactor;
if (decimalsNormalizer < 0) {
scalingFactor = 10**(-1 * decimalsNormalizer).toUint256();
_peg = _peg.div(scalingFactor);
} else {
scalingFactor = 10**decimalsNormalizer.toUint256();
_peg = _peg.mul(scalingFactor);

return _peg;

The storage slot doInvert is updated by calling the external method:


    /// @notice sets the flag for whether to invert or not
/// @param newDoInvert the new flag for whether to invert
function setDoInvert(bool newDoInvert) external override onlyGovernor {

This proceeds to call internally _setDoInvert:


    function _setDoInvert(bool newDoInvert) internal {
bool oldDoInvert = doInvert;
doInvert = newDoInvert;

if (oldDoInvert != newDoInvert) {
_setDecimalsNormalizer(-1 * decimalsNormalizer);

emit InvertUpdate(oldDoInvert, newDoInvert);

It is not obvious nor documented that changing the invert value will also update the decimals normalizer.

Consider the example where the governance wants to update the oracle's invert and decimal scaling. To do that the following methods need to be executed:

  • OracleRef.setDoInvert(bool)
  • OracleRef.setDecimalsNormalizer(int256)

Depending on the order of the called methods you will have different final values for the decimals normalizer.

  1. Updating doInvert first and decimalsNormalizer second
Initial valuesโ€‹
doInvert = false;
decimalsNormalizer = 18;
Update valuesโ€‹
Final valuesโ€‹
doInvert = true;
decimalsNormalizer = -12;
  1. Updating decimalsNormalizer first and doInvert second
We start from the same initial valuesโ€‹
doInvert = false;
decimalsNormalizer = 18;
We update the values, but in a different orderโ€‹
The final values can be unexpected for the governanceโ€‹
doInvert = true;
decimalsNormalizer = 12;

Even though we set the decimals to be -12, because we also updated the invert flag, we obtained a different value for our decimals scaling. The order of operations determines our final value for the decimals scaling.

This time the decimalsNormalizer is updated first. Thus, we have decimalsNormalizer = -12.

When the method doInvert(true) is executed, the old value is first saved, and the flag doInvert is set to true:


    function _setDoInvert(bool newDoInvert) internal {
bool oldDoInvert = doInvert;
doInvert = newDoInvert;

After this, because the old value is different from the current value, the decimals normalizer is also inverted:


        if (oldDoInvert != newDoInvert) {
_setDecimalsNormalizer(-1 * decimalsNormalizer);

This might be unexpected because it's not obvious, it's "hidden" in the internal method and an event is not emitted.

We can clearly see how changing the order of the operations can unexpectedly update decimalsNormalizer.


Consider removing the logic related to updating decimalsNormalizer in the internal method _setDoInvert :


        if (oldDoInvert != newDoInvert) {
_setDecimalsNormalizer(-1 * decimalsNormalizer);

Method compoundInterest can be gas optimized when emitting eventโ€‹

Issue status: Acknowledged Minor


The method compountInterest calculates the compounded interest if enough time has passed.

If the conditions are met, a new oracle price is saved and an event is emitted.


        /// first set Oracle Price to interpolated value
oraclePrice = getCurrentOraclePrice();

/// set periodStartTime to periodStartTime + timeframe,
/// this is equivalent to init timed, which wipes out all unaccumulated compounded interest
/// and cleanly sets the start time.
periodStartTime = periodEndTime;

emit InterestCompounded(periodStartTime, oraclePrice);

The emission of the event can be gas optimized a bit, by using the stack value instead of the storage slot since they represent the same value.


        /// set periodStartTime to periodStartTime + timeframe,
/// this is equivalent to init timed, which wipes out all unaccumulated compounded interest
/// and cleanly sets the start time.
periodStartTime = periodEndTime;

emit InterestCompounded(periodStartTime, oraclePrice);


Consider emitting the stack value periodEndTime instead using the storage slot periodStartTime since they have the same value and will use less gas.

_validPrice can include floor and ceiling values when checking the validityโ€‹

Issue status: Acknowledged Minor


A price is considered valid if the internal method _validPrice returns true.


    /// @notice helper function to determine if price is within a valid range
function _validPrice(Decimal.D256 memory price)
returns (bool valid)
valid =
Decimal.ratio(floor, Constants.BASIS_POINTS_GRANULARITY)
) &&
Decimal.ratio(ceiling, Constants.BASIS_POINTS_GRANULARITY)

This method checks if the provided price is strictly greater than the floor and strictly less than the floor.


Decimal.ratio(floor, Constants.BASIS_POINTS_GRANULARITY)
) &&
Decimal.ratio(ceiling, Constants.BASIS_POINTS_GRANULARITY)

These methods are taken from the Decimal library.


    function greaterThan(D256 memory self, D256 memory b)
returns (bool)
return compareTo(self, b) == 2;

function lessThan(D256 memory self, D256 memory b)
returns (bool)
return compareTo(self, b) == 0;

Using a strictly greater/less check will exclude the values of floor and ceiling as being valid. This forces the governance to add floor and ceiling values similar to floor = 0.7999999999999 and ceiling = 1.199999999999 to describe a valid interval from 0.8 to 1.2, included.

If the check would accept the limits as valid, the governance could set floor = 0.8 and ceiling = 1.2, which are a lot easier to reason about and verify.


Consider using the methods greaterThanOrEqualTo and lessThanOrEqualTo provided by Decimal to avoid using awkward values.


    function greaterThanOrEqualTo(D256 memory self, D256 memory b)
returns (bool)
return compareTo(self, b) > 0;

function lessThanOrEqualTo(D256 memory self, D256 memory b)
returns (bool)
return compareTo(self, b) < 2;

[optional] References

Setting ceiling basis points does not need a non zero validationโ€‹

Issue status: Acknowledged Minor


A governor or an admin can set the price floor and the ceiling between which swaps are enabled.

To set the ceiling, they call setOracleCeilingBasisPoints


    /// @notice sets the ceiling price in BP
function setOracleCeilingBasisPoints(uint256 newCeilingBasisPoints)

The internal method _setCeilingBasisPoints make sure the provided value is

  • non zero


newCeilingBasisPoints != 0,
"PegStabilityModule: invalid ceiling"
  • greater than the floor


Decimal.ratio(floor, Constants.BASIS_POINTS_GRANULARITY)
"PegStabilityModule: ceiling must be greater than floor"

The check that makes sure the value is non-zero is not required since the ceiling has to be greater than the floor, and the floor has to be greater than zero:


    /// @notice helper function to set the floor in basis points
function _setFloorBasisPoints(uint256 newFloorBasisPoints) internal {
require(newFloorBasisPoints != 0, "PegStabilityModule: invalid floor");

To increase readability and to help the developer reason about the code, the check can stay there. Still, to slightly decrease the gas cost, a comment can be added that explains why the non-zero check is not needed, retaining readability.


Consider replacing the require with a comment that explains why the check is not necessary.

Oracle implementation can be made more robustโ€‹

Issue status: Acknowledged Informational


The current oracle implementation does not account for external systems failures. There is no immediate threat, but the oracle system must be a very robust and trusted component.

Consider this approach for implementing an oracle system.

We define a base class that handles passing the value obtained from an oracle implementation. This class implements a robust approach for getting the value, even if the implementation fails.

abstract contract OracleBase {
function value() external returns (uint256 value_, bool valid_) {
// Try to get the value
try this.obtainValue() returns (uint256 valueReturned, bool valid) {
// Prepare the value to be returned
value_ = valueReturned;
// Pass the valid bool
valid_ = valid;
} catch {
value_ = 0;
valid_ = false;

return (value_, valid_);

function obtainValue() external virtual returns (uint256 value, bool valid);

The call to obtainValue() can fail because of external calls or improper developer implementation. Whatever the case, the base class can handle these fails and can do much more if multiple fails happen in a row, or provide a cached value, or notify a system that they're offline.

Any oracle will use this base class and must implement obtainValue specific to the value they need to retrieve.

contract OracleImplementation is OracleBase {
ExternalContract immutable public ec;

constructor(ExternalContract _ec) {
// Save the external provider's address
ec = _ec;

function obtainValue() override(OracleBase) external returns (uint256, bool) {
// Make sure this is not called externally by anyone else.
require(msg.sender == address(this), "Oracle must call itself to get the value");

// Talk to `ExternalContract` and get the scale
uint256 scale = ec.getScale();

// Sometimes you need to do something with the value
scale = scale / 10;

// Validate the processed value
bool valid = scale <= 42;

// Return scale
return (scale, valid);

In this case, OracleImplementation talks to an external system, and they don't need to account for any failures, unexpected upgrades or weird behavior.

Its only purpose is to obtain the value, process it (if necessary), validate it and return the value if the validity.

OracleBase should not care what the value represents, its purpose is to handle failures and pass on the values.

OracleImplementation has to understand the value obtained and must know how to process and validate it.

Finally, we tested this with an implementation that returns a value or sometimes fails to ensure our example implementation holds.

contract ExternalContract {
function getScale() public view returns (uint256 scale_) {
// Simulate random reverts
if (block.number % 2 == 0) {
// fail
revert("Sometimes it fails");
} else {
// return a value, do not fail
return 12;

Separating the concerns between OracleBase and OracleImplementation allows for:

  • adding new developers that do not have to understand the whole system in order to develop an oracle;
  • protecting from unexpected external changes or upgrades;
  • protecting from unexpected external fails.


Consider stabilizing the oracle interface and implementation to allow for an increase in developer speed, while retaining robust principles and execution



The architecture is extremely hard to understand and it's not well documented. We started to work on a high-level architecture diagram.



We used surya to generate these outputs:

$ npx surya describe ./Contract.sol
 +  Core (ICore, Permissions, Initializable)
- [Ext] init #
- modifiers: initializer
- [Ext] setVcon #
- modifiers: onlyGovernor
 +  PriceBoundPSM (PegStabilityModule, IPriceBound)
- [Pub] <Constructor> #
- modifiers: PegStabilityModule
- [Ext] setOracleFloorBasisPoints #
- modifiers: onlyGovernorOrAdmin
- [Ext] setOracleCeilingBasisPoints #
- modifiers: onlyGovernorOrAdmin
- [Ext] isPriceValid
- [Int] _allocate #
- [Int] _setCeilingBasisPoints #
- [Int] _setFloorBasisPoints #
- [Int] _validPrice
- [Int] _validatePriceRange
 +  L2Core (ICore, Permissions)
- [Pub] <Constructor> #
- [Ext] setVcon #
- modifiers: onlyGovernor
 +  VoltSystemOracle (IVoltSystemOracle)
- [Pub] <Constructor> #
- [Pub] getCurrentOraclePrice
- [Ext] compoundInterest #
 +  OraclePassThrough (IOraclePassThrough, Ownable)
- [Pub] <Constructor> #
- modifiers: Ownable
- [Pub] update #
- [Ext] read
- [Ext] getCurrentOraclePrice
- [Ext] currPegPrice
- [Ext] updateScalingPriceOracle #
- modifiers: onlyOwner
 +  PCVGuardian (IPCVGuardian, CoreRef)
- [Pub] <Constructor> #
- modifiers: CoreRef
- [Pub] isWhitelistAddress
- [Pub] getWhitelistAddresses
- [Ext] addWhitelistAddress #
- modifiers: onlyGovernor
- [Ext] addWhitelistAddresses #
- modifiers: onlyGovernor
- [Ext] removeWhitelistAddress #
- modifiers: onlyGuardianOrGovernor
- [Ext] removeWhitelistAddresses #
- modifiers: onlyGuardianOrGovernor
- [Ext] withdrawToSafeAddress #
- modifiers: hasAnyOfThreeRoles,onlyWhitelist
- [Ext] withdrawAllToSafeAddress #
- modifiers: hasAnyOfThreeRoles,onlyWhitelist
- [Ext] withdrawERC20ToSafeAddress #
- modifiers: hasAnyOfThreeRoles,onlyWhitelist
- [Ext] withdrawAllERC20ToSafeAddress #
- modifiers: hasAnyOfThreeRoles,onlyWhitelist
- [Int] _withdrawToSafeAddress #
- [Int] _withdrawERC20ToSafeAddress #
- [Int] _addWhitelistAddress #
- [Int] _removeWhitelistAddress #
 +  PCVGuardAdmin (IPCVGuardAdmin, CoreRef)
- [Pub] <Constructor> #
- modifiers: CoreRef
- [Ext] grantPCVGuardRole #
- modifiers: onlyGovernor
- [Ext] revokePCVGuardRole #
- modifiers: onlyGuardianOrGovernor
 +  CoreRef (ICoreRef, Pausable)
- [Pub] <Constructor> #
- [Int] _initialize #
- [Ext] setContractAdminRole #
- modifiers: onlyGovernor
- [Pub] isContractAdmin
- [Pub] pause #
- modifiers: onlyGuardianOrGovernor
- [Pub] unpause #
- modifiers: onlyGuardianOrGovernor
- [Pub] core
- [Pub] volt
- [Pub] vcon
- [Pub] voltBalance
- [Pub] vconBalance
- [Int] _burnVoltHeld #
- [Int] _mintVolt #
- [Int] _setContractAdminRole #
 +  OracleRef (IOracleRef, CoreRef)
- [Pub] <Constructor> #
- modifiers: CoreRef
- [Ext] setOracle #
- modifiers: onlyGovernor
- [Ext] setDoInvert #
- modifiers: onlyGovernor
- [Ext] setDecimalsNormalizer #
- modifiers: onlyGovernor
- [Ext] setBackupOracle #
- modifiers: onlyGovernorOrAdmin
- [Pub] invert
- [Pub] updateOracle #
- [Pub] readOracle
- [Int] _setOracle #
- [Int] _setBackupOracle #
- [Int] _setDoInvert #
- [Int] _setDecimalsNormalizer #
- [Int] _setDecimalsNormalizerFromToken #
 +  ERC20CompoundPCVDeposit (CompoundPCVDepositBase)
- [Pub] <Constructor> #
- modifiers: CompoundPCVDepositBase
- [Ext] deposit #
- modifiers: whenNotPaused
- [Int] _transferUnderlying #
- [Pub] balanceReportedIn


 ($) = payable function
# = non-constant function


$ npm run test

> @voltprotocol/volt-protocol-core@1.0.0 test
> forge test --match-contract UnitTest -vvv

[โ ’] Compiling...
[โ ‘] Compiling 1 files with 0.4.26
[โ ˜] Compiling 71 files with 0.8.13
[โ ƒ] Compiling 78 files with 0.8.16
[โ ”] Solc 0.4.26 finished in 36.38ms
[โ Š] Solc 0.8.16 finished in 4.48s
[โ ˜] Solc 0.8.13 finished in 10.90s
Compiler run successful (with warnings)
contracts/external/WETH9.sol:47:9: Warning: Invoking events without "emit" prefix is deprecated.
Deposit(msg.sender, msg.value);

contracts/external/WETH9.sol:54:9: Warning: Invoking events without "emit" prefix is deprecated.
Withdrawal(msg.sender, wad);

contracts/external/WETH9.sol:58:16: Warning: Using contract member "balance" inherited from the address type is deprecated. Convert the contract to "address" type to access the member, for example use "address(contract).balance" instead.
return this.balance;

contracts/external/WETH9.sol:63:9: Warning: Invoking events without "emit" prefix is deprecated.
Approval(msg.sender, guy, wad);

contracts/external/WETH9.sol:86:9: Warning: Invoking events without "emit" prefix is deprecated.
Transfer(src, dst, wad);

warning[8760]: Warning: This declaration has the same name as another declaration.
--> contracts/pcv/utils/ERC20Allocator.sol:79:9:
79 | uint248 targetBalance,
| ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Note: The other declaration is here:
--> contracts/pcv/utils/ERC20Allocator.sol:280:5:
280 | function targetBalance(address psm) external view returns (uint256) {
| ^ (Relevant source part starts here and spans across multiple lines).

warning[8760]: Warning: This declaration has the same name as another declaration.
--> contracts/pcv/utils/ERC20Allocator.sol:104:48:
104 | function editPSMTargetBalance(address psm, uint248 targetBalance)
| ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Note: The other declaration is here:
--> contracts/pcv/utils/ERC20Allocator.sol:280:5:
280 | function targetBalance(address psm) external view returns (uint256) {
| ^ (Relevant source part starts here and spans across multiple lines).

warning[2072]: Warning: Unused local variable.
--> contracts/test/integration/vip/vip8.sol:94:9:
94 | uint256 daiBalance = PegStabilityModule(MainnetAddresses.FEI_DAI_PSM)
| ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

warning[2072]: Warning: Unused local variable.
--> contracts/test/unit/pcv/utils/ERC20Allocator.t.sol:619:9:
619 | uint256 skimAmount = (bufferCap - bufferEnd) * 2;
| ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

warning[2018]: Warning: Function state mutability can be restricted to view
--> contracts/test/integration/vip/vip10.sol:121:5:
121 | function getMainnetProposal()
| ^ (Relevant source part starts here and spans across multiple lines).

warning[2018]: Warning: Function state mutability can be restricted to pure
--> contracts/test/integration/vip/vip10.sol:185:5:
185 | function arbitrumSetup() public override {
| ^ (Relevant source part starts here and spans across multiple lines).

warning[2018]: Warning: Function state mutability can be restricted to pure
--> contracts/test/integration/vip/vip10.sol:189:5:
189 | function arbitrumValidate() public override {
| ^ (Relevant source part starts here and spans across multiple lines).

warning[2018]: Warning: Function state mutability can be restricted to pure
--> contracts/test/integration/vip/vip8.sol:141:5:
141 | function arbitrumSetup() public override {
| ^ (Relevant source part starts here and spans across multiple lines).

warning[2018]: Warning: Function state mutability can be restricted to pure
--> contracts/test/integration/vip/vip8.sol:145:5:
145 | function arbitrumValidate() public override {
| ^ (Relevant source part starts here and spans across multiple lines).

warning[2018]: Warning: Function state mutability can be restricted to pure
--> contracts/test/integration/vip/vip9.sol:110:5:
110 | function arbitrumSetup() public override {
| ^ (Relevant source part starts here and spans across multiple lines).

warning[2018]: Warning: Function state mutability can be restricted to pure
--> contracts/test/integration/vip/vip9.sol:114:5:
114 | function arbitrumValidate() public override {
| ^ (Relevant source part starts here and spans across multiple lines).

Running 2 tests for contracts/test/unit/Volt.t.sol:UnitTestVolt
[PASS] testDeployedMetaData() (gas: 17541)
[PASS] testMintsVolt() (gas: 70031)
Test result: ok. 2 passed; 0 failed; finished in 8.31ms

Running 2 tests for contracts/test/unit/core/Core.t.sol:UnitTestCore
[PASS] testGovernorSetsVcon() (gas: 22417)
[PASS] testNonGovernorFailsSettingVcon() (gas: 13096)
Test result: ok. 2 passed; 0 failed; finished in 7.28ms

Running 4 tests for contracts/test/unit/oracle/OraclePassThrough.t.sol:UnitTestOraclePassThrough
[PASS] testDataPassThroughSync() (gas: 23897)
[PASS] testSetup() (gas: 12820)
[PASS] testUpdateScalingPriceOracleFailureNotGovernor() (gas: 13697)
[PASS] testUpdateScalingPriceOracleSuccess() (gas: 244964)
Test result: ok. 4 passed; 0 failed; finished in 10.97ms

Running 6 tests for contracts/test/unit/utils/KArrayTree.t.sol:KArrayTreeUnitTest
[PASS] testAddDuplicateFails() (gas: 5643)
[PASS] testAddDuplicateFailsFind() (gas: 39737)
[PASS] testCanChangeRole() (gas: 40888)
[PASS] testCannotChangeToExistingRole() (gas: 5672)
[PASS] testFree() (gas: 52596)
[PASS] testSetup() (gas: 46808)
Test result: ok. 6 passed; 0 failed; finished in 452.71ยตs

Running 3 tests for contracts/test/unit/utils/Deviation.t.sol:UnitTestDeviation
[PASS] testDeviation() (gas: 1332)
[PASS] testOutsideDeviation() (gas: 3350)
[PASS] testWithinDeviation() (gas: 3120)
Test result: ok. 3 passed; 0 failed; finished in 179.65ยตs

Running 3 tests for contracts/test/unit/core/L2Core.t.sol:UnitTestL2Core
[PASS] testGovernorSetsVcon() (gas: 39600)
[PASS] testNonGovernorFailsSettingVcon() (gas: 13129)
[PASS] testSetup() (gas: 57635)
Test result: ok. 3 passed; 0 failed; finished in 955.64ยตs

Running 7 tests for contracts/test/unit/pcv/PCVGuardAdmin.t.sol:UnitTestPCVGuardAdmin
[PASS] testGrantPCVGuard() (gas: 99226)
[PASS] testGrantPCVGuardFailWhenGuardian() (gas: 17065)
[PASS] testGrantPCVGuardFailWhenNoRoles() (gas: 14577)
[PASS] testPCVGuardAdminRole() (gas: 10163)
[PASS] testRevokePCVGuardFailWhenNoRole() (gas: 19918)
[PASS] testRevokePCVGuardGovernor() (gas: 36082)
[PASS] testRevokePCVGuardGuardian() (gas: 38636)
Test result: ok. 7 passed; 0 failed; finished in 1.66ms

Running 11 tests for contracts/test/unit/pcv/ERC20HoldingPCVDeposit.t.sol:UnitTestERC20HoldingsPCVDeposit
[PASS] testDepositFailsOnPause() (gas: 40859)
[PASS] testDepositNoOp() (gas: 7591)
[PASS] testWithdrawAllFailsNonPCVController() (gas: 17439)
[PASS] testWithdrawAllSucceeds() (gas: 82588)
[PASS] testWithdrawERC20FailsNonPCVController() (gas: 16553)
[PASS] testWithdrawERC20Succeeds() (gas: 82261)
[PASS] testWithdrawEthFailsNonPCVController() (gas: 14410)
[PASS] testWithdrawEthSucceeds() (gas: 51551)
[PASS] testWithdrawFailsNonPCVController() (gas: 17497)
[PASS] testWithdrawSucceeds() (gas: 81625)
[PASS] testWrapEthFailsWhenNotOnMainnetOrArbitrum() (gas: 9021)
Test result: ok. 11 passed; 0 failed; finished in 22.95ms

Running 34 tests for contracts/test/unit/pcv/PCVGuardian.t.sol:UnitTestPCVGuardian
[PASS] testAddWhiteListAddress() (gas: 68365)
[PASS] testGovernorWithdrawAllERC20ToSafeAddress() (gas: 62208)
[PASS] testGovernorWithdrawERC20ToSafeAddress() (gas: 61455)
[PASS] testGuardianWithdrawAllERC20ToSafeAddress() (gas: 65460)
[PASS] testGuardianWithdrawAllToSafeAddress() (gas: 71328)
[PASS] testGuardianWithdrawERC20ToSafeAddress() (gas: 64622)
[PASS] testGuardianWithdrawToSafeAddress() (gas: 70016)
[PASS] testPCVGuardAdminRole() (gas: 10202)
[PASS] testPCVGuardWithdrawAllERC20ToSafeAddress() (gas: 68592)
[PASS] testPCVGuardWithdrawAllToSafeAddress() (gas: 74451)
[PASS] testPCVGuardWithdrawERC20ToSafeAddress() (gas: 67830)
[PASS] testPCVGuardWithdrawToSafeAddress() (gas: 73213)
[PASS] testPCVGuardianRoles() (gas: 13642)
[PASS] testPausedAfterWithdrawAllToSafeAddress() (gas: 105301)
[PASS] testPausedAfterWithdrawToSafeAddress() (gas: 104032)
[PASS] testRemoveWhiteListAddress() (gas: 25129)
[PASS] testWithdrawAllERC20ToSafeAddressFailWhenGuardRevokedGovernor() (gas: 48315)
[PASS] testWithdrawAllERC20ToSafeAddressFailWhenGuardRevokedGuardian() (gas: 50886)
[PASS] testWithdrawAllERC20ToSafeAddressFailWhenNoRole() (gas: 25445)
[PASS] testWithdrawAllERC20ToSafeAddressFailWhenNotWhitelist() (gas: 21962)
[PASS] testWithdrawAllToSafeAddress() (gas: 68108)
[PASS] testWithdrawAllToSafeAddressFailWhenGuardRevokedGovernor() (gas: 46547)
[PASS] testWithdrawAllToSafeAddressFailWhenGuardRevokedGuardian() (gas: 49153)
[PASS] testWithdrawAllToSafeAddressFailWhenNoRole() (gas: 23211)
[PASS] testWithdrawAlloSafeAddressFailWhenNotWhitelist() (gas: 19715)
[PASS] testWithdrawERC20ToSafeAddressFailWhenGuardRevokedGovernor() (gas: 50140)
[PASS] testWithdrawERC20ToSafeAddressFailWhenGuardRevokedGuardian() (gas: 52607)
[PASS] testWithdrawERC20ToSafeAddressFailWhenNoRole() (gas: 27607)
[PASS] testWithdrawERC20oSafeAddressFailWhenNotWhitelist() (gas: 24150)
[PASS] testWithdrawToSafeAddress() (gas: 66851)
[PASS] testWithdrawToSafeAddressFailWhenGuardRevokedGovernor() (gas: 48264)
[PASS] testWithdrawToSafeAddressFailWhenGuardRevokedGuardian() (gas: 50871)
[PASS] testWithdrawToSafeAddressFailWhenNoRole() (gas: 25402)
[PASS] testWithdrawToSafeAddressFailWhenNotWhitelist() (gas: 21838)
Test result: ok. 34 passed; 0 failed; finished in 33.85ms

Running 10 tests for contracts/test/unit/pcv/utils/ERC20AllocatorConnector.t.sol:UnitTestERC20AllocatorConnector
[PASS] testConnectAndRemoveNewDeposit() (gas: 1363694)
[PASS] testConnectNewDepositFailsTokenMismatch() (gas: 1344233)
[PASS] testConnectNewDepositFailsUnderlyingTokenMismatch() (gas: 1344278)
[PASS] testConnectNewDepositSkimToDripFrom() (gas: 1591079)
[PASS] testCreateDuplicateDepositFails() (gas: 24620)
[PASS] testCreateNewDepositFailsUnderlyingTokenMismatch() (gas: 2687951)
[PASS] testDripFailsToNonConnectedAddress(address) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 15788, ~: 15788)
[PASS] testEditPSMTargetBalanceFailsPsmUnderlyingChanged() (gas: 180236)
[PASS] testSetTargetBalanceNonExistingPsmFails() (gas: 130986)
[PASS] testSkimFailsToNonConnectedAddress(address) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 15701, ~: 15701)
Test result: ok. 10 passed; 0 failed; finished in 39.03ms

Running 12 tests for contracts/test/unit/utils/RateLimitedV2.t.sol:UnitTestRateLimitedV2
[PASS] testDepleteBuffer(uint128,uint16) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 22136, ~: 25794)
[PASS] testDepleteBufferFailsWhenZeroBuffer() (gas: 20234)
[PASS] testDepleteThenReplenishBuffer(uint128,uint128,uint16) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 28172, ~: 27111)
[PASS] testReplenishBuffer(uint128,uint16) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 30682, ~: 31404)
[PASS] testReplenishWhenAtBufferCapHasNoEffect(uint128) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 13537, ~: 13537)
[PASS] testSetBufferCapGovSucceeds() (gas: 30801)
[PASS] testSetBufferCapNonGovFails() (gas: 14344)
[PASS] testSetRateLimitPerSecondAboveMaxFails() (gas: 17059)
[PASS] testSetRateLimitPerSecondGovSucceeds() (gas: 29020)
[PASS] testSetRateLimitPerSecondNonGovFails() (gas: 14266)
[PASS] testSetRateLimitPerSecondSucceeds() (gas: 27052)
[PASS] testSetup() (gas: 13286)
Test result: ok. 12 passed; 0 failed; finished in 67.82ms

Running 45 tests for contracts/test/unit/pcv/utils/ERC20Allocator.t.sol:UnitTestERC20Allocator
[PASS] testAllConditionsFalseWhenPaused() (gas: 142927)
[PASS] testBufferDepletesAndReplenishesCorrectly() (gas: 261973)
[PASS] testBufferDepletesAndReplenishesCorrectlyMultipleDecimalNormalizedDeposits() (gas: 3849611)
[PASS] testBufferUpdatesCorrectly() (gas: 261566)
[PASS] testConnectDepositNonGovFails() (gas: 14567)
[PASS] testCreateDepositNonGovFails() (gas: 14728)
[PASS] testDeleteDepositGovSucceeds() (gas: 27065)
[PASS] testDeleteDepositNonGovFails() (gas: 14419)
[PASS] testDeletePSMGovSucceeds() (gas: 29270)
[PASS] testDeletePSMGovSucceedsDripFails() (gas: 36233)
[PASS] testDeletePSMGovSucceedsDripFailsDeleteDeposit() (gas: 35591)
[PASS] testDeletePSMGovSucceedsSkimFails() (gas: 36098)
[PASS] testDeletePSMGovSucceedsSkimFailsDeleteDeposit() (gas: 36628)
[PASS] testDeletePSMNonGovFails() (gas: 16548)
[PASS] testDoActionDripSucceedsWhenUnderFullTargetBalance(uint8) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 217770, ~: 217770)
[PASS] testDoActionFailsWhenUnderTargetWithoutPCVControllerRole() (gas: 116833)
[PASS] testDoActionNoOpOnNonWhitelistedPSM() (gas: 20223)
[PASS] testDoActionNoOpWhenUnderTargetWithoutPCVControllerRole() (gas: 29353)
[PASS] testDoActionSkimSucceedsWhenOverThresholdWithPCVControllerFuzz(uint128) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 165043, ~: 146330)
[PASS] testDripAndSkimFailsWhenPaused() (gas: 44873)
[PASS] testDripFailsOnNonWhitelistedPSM() (gas: 20189)
[PASS] testDripFailsWhenBufferExhausted() (gas: 261410)
[PASS] testDripFailsWhenBufferZero() (gas: 194307)
[PASS] testDripFailsWhenUnderFunded() (gas: 177840)
[PASS] testDripFailsWhenUnderTargetWithoutPCVControllerRole() (gas: 116701)
[PASS] testDripNoOpWhenUnderTargetWithoutPCVControllerRole() (gas: 50015)
[PASS] testDripSucceedsWhenBufferFiftyPercentDepleted() (gas: 243180)
[PASS] testDripSucceedsWhenBufferFiftyPercentDepletedDecimalsNormalized() (gas: 3639644)
[PASS] testDripSucceedsWhenBufferFiftyPercentDepletedDecimalsNormalizedNegative() (gas: 3639613)
[PASS] testDripSucceedsWhenOverThreshold() (gas: 217932)
[PASS] testDripSucceedsWhenOverThresholdAndPSMPartiallyFunded() (gas: 248718)
[PASS] testDripSucceedsWhenUnderFullTargetBalance(uint8) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 198531, ~: 198531)
[PASS] testDripperFailsWhenUnderFunded() (gas: 137455)
[PASS] testGetAdjustedAmountDown(uint128) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 6991, ~: 6991)
[PASS] testGetAdjustedAmountUp(uint128) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 6683, ~: 6683)
[PASS] testPullSucceedsWhenOverThresholdWithPCVController() (gas: 219109)
[PASS] testSetup() (gas: 56236)
[PASS] testSkimFailsOnNonWhitelistedPSM() (gas: 20211)
[PASS] testSkimFailsWhenOverTargetWithoutPCVController() (gas: 93596)
[PASS] testSkimFailsWhenUnderFunded() (gas: 48287)
[PASS] testSkimSucceedsWhenOverThresholdWithPCVControllerFuzz(uint128) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 175953, ~: 162026)
[PASS] testSweepGovSucceeds() (gas: 76589)
[PASS] testSweepNonGovFails() (gas: 16783)
[PASS] testTargetBalanceGovSucceeds() (gas: 34072)
[PASS] testeditPSMTargetBalanceNonGovFails() (gas: 14647)
Test result: ok. 45 passed; 0 failed; finished in 220.07ms

Running 10 tests for contracts/test/unit/oracle/VoltSystemOracle.t.sol:VoltSystemOracleUnitTest
[PASS] testCompoundBeforePeriodStartFails() (gas: 10763)
[PASS] testCompoundSucceedsAfterOnePeriod() (gas: 28455)
[PASS] testLERPPerDay() (gas: 198204)
[PASS] testLinearInterpolation() (gas: 30104)
[PASS] testLinearInterpolationFuzz(uint32) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 21821, ~: 24128)
[PASS] testLinearInterpolationFuzzMultiplePeriods(uint32,uint8) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 1344004, ~: 563838)
[PASS] testLinearInterpolationUnderYearFuzzPeriods(uint24,uint8) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 842437, ~: 334878)
[PASS] testMultipleSequentialPeriodCompounds() (gas: 51930321)
[PASS] testNoLinearInterpolationBeforeStartTime(uint16) (runs: 256, ฮผ: 13584, ~: 13584)
[PASS] testSetup() (gas: 12398)
Test result: ok. 10 passed; 0 failed; finished in 1.24s


This report falls under the terms described in the included LICENSE.